发布日期:2015-10-19 13:26 来源: 标签: oracle教程 oracle函数大全 oracle函数 oracle常用SQL查询
本章节我们将学习oracle常用经典SQL查询,下面我们就做一下具体讲解,希望大家多多支持中国站长网络学院。
1、查看表空间的名称及大小
 select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size
from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d
where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name
group by t.tablespace_name;
 
2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小
 select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
 
3、查看回滚段名称及大小
 select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status, 
(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent, 
max_extents, v.curext CurExtent
From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v
Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)
order by segment_name;
 
4、查看控制文件
 select name from v$controlfile;
 
5、查看日志文件
 select member from v$logfile;
 
6、查看表空间的使用情况
 select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name 
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
 
SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,
(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"
FROM SYS.***$TS_***AIL A,SYS.***$TS_USED B,SYS.***$TS_FREE C
WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME; 
 
7、查看数据库库对象
 select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;
 
8、查看数据库的版本 
 Select version FROM Product_component_version 
Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)=''Oracle'';
 
9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式
 Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database; 
 
10、捕捉运行很久的SQL
 column username format a12 
column opname format a16 
column progress format a8 
 
select username,sid,opname, 
      round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || ''%'' as progress, 
      time_remaining,sql_text 
from v$session_longops , v$sql 
where time_remaining <> 0 
and sql_address = address 
and sql_hash_value = hash_value 
/
11。查看数据表的参数信息
SELECT   partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
        pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
        next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
        freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
        empty_blocks, ***g_space, chain_cnt, ***g_row_len, sample_size,
        last_analyzed
   FROM dba_tab_partitions
  --WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position
 
12.查看还没提交的事务
select * from v$locked_object;
select * from v$transaction;
 
13。查找object为哪些进程所用
select 
p.spid,
s.sid,
s.serial# serial_num,
s.username user_name,
a.type  object_type,
s.osuser os_user_name,
a.owner,
a.object object_name,
decode(sign(48 - command),
1,
to_char(command), ''Action Code #'' || to_char(command) ) action,
p.program oracle_process,
s.terminal terminal,
s.program program,
s.status session_status   
from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p   
where s.paddr = p.addr and
     s.type = ''USER'' and    
     a.sid = s.sid   and
  a.object=''SUBSCRIBER_ATTR''
order by s.username, s.osuser
 
14。回滚段查看
select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents 
Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs, 
v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes, 
sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs, 
v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and 
v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum
 
15。耗资源的进程(top session)
select s.schemaname schema_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1, 
to_char(command), ''Action Code #'' || to_char(command) ) action,    status 
session_status,   s.osuser os_user_name,   s.sid,         p.spid ,         s.serial# serial_num,   
nvl(s.username, ''[Oracle process]'') user_name,   s.terminal terminal,    
s.program program,   st.value criteria_value  from v$sesstat st,   v$session s  , v$process p   
where st.sid = s.sid and   st.statistic# = to_number(''38'') and   (''ALL'' = ''ALL'' 
or s.status = ''ALL'') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc,  p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc
 
16。查看锁(lock)情况
select /*+ RULE */ ls.osuser os_user_name,   ls.username user_name,   
decode(ls.type, ''RW'', ''Row wait enqueue lock'', ''TM'', ''DML enqueue lock'', ''TX'', 
''Transaction enqueue lock'', ''UL'', ''User supplied lock'') lock_type,   
o.object_name object,   decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, ''Row Share'', 3, 
''Row Exclusive'', 4, ''Share'', 5, ''Share Row Exclusive'', 6, ''Exclusive'', null) 
lock_mode,    o.owner,   ls.sid,   ls.serial# serial_num,   ls.id1,   ls.id2    
from sys.dba_objects o, (   select s.osuser,    s.username,    l.type,     
l.lmode,    s.sid,    s.serial#,    l.id1,    l.id2   from v$session s,     
v$lock l   where s.sid = l.sid ) ls  where o.object_id = ls.id1 and    o.owner 
<> ''SYS''   order by o.owner, o.object_name
 
17。查看等待(wait)情况
SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value 
FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN (''db block gets'', 
''consistent gets'') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count
 
18。查看sga情况
SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC
 
19。查看catched object
SELECT owner,              name,              db_link,              namespace,  
           type,              sharable_mem,              loads,              executions,   
          locks,              pins,              kept        FROM v$db_object_cache
          
20。查看V$SQLAREA
SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS, 
VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS, 
USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,
BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA
 
21。查看object分类数量
select decode (o.type#,1,''INDEX'' , 2,''TABLE'' , 3 , ''CLUSTER'' , 4, ''VIEW'' , 5 , 
''SYNONYM'' , 6 , ''SEQUENCE'' , ''OTHER'' ) object_type , count(*) quantity from 
sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,''INDEX'' , 2,''TABLE'' , 3 
, ''CLUSTER'' , 4, ''VIEW'' , 5 , ''SYNONYM'' , 6 , ''SEQUENCE'' , ''OTHER'' ) union select 
''COLUMN'' , count(*) from sys.col$ union select ''DB LINK'' , count(*) from 
 
22。按用户查看object种类
select u.name schema,   sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes,   
sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables,   sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL)) 
clusters,   sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views,   sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1, 
NULL)) synonyms,   sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences,   
sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1)) 
others   from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u   where o.type# >= 1 and    u.user# = 
o.owner# and   u.name <> ''PUBLIC''   group by u.name    order by 
sys.link$ union select ''CONSTRAINT'' , count(*) from sys.con$
 
23。有关connection的相关信息
1)查看有哪些用户连接
select s.osuser os_user_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),
''Action Code #'' || to_char(command) ) action,     p.program oracle_process,     
status session_status,    s.terminal terminal,    s.program program,    
s.username user_name,    s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter,    '''' query,    
0 memory,    0 max_memory,     0 cpu_usage,    s.sid,   s.serial# serial_num    
from v$session s,    v$process p   where s.paddr=p.addr and    s.type = ''USER''  
order by s.username, s.osuser
2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况
select n.name, 
 v.value, 
 n.class,
 n.statistic#  
from  v$statname n, 
 v$sesstat v 
where v.sid = 71 and 
 v.statistic# = n.statistic# 
order by n.class, n.statistic#
3)根据sid查看对应连接正在运行的sql
select /*+ PUSH_SUBQ */
 command_type, 
 sql_text, 
 sharable_mem, 
 persistent_mem, 
 runtime_mem, 
 sorts, 
 version_count, 
 loaded_versions, 
 open_versions, 
 users_opening, 
 executions, 
 users_executing, 
 loads, 
 first_load_time, 
 invalidations, 
 parse_calls, 
 disk_reads, 
 buffer_gets, 
 rows_processed,
 sysdate start_time,
 sysdate finish_time,
 ''>'' || address sql_address,
 ''N'' status 
from v$sqlarea
where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71)
 
24.查询表空间使用情况
select a.tablespace_name "表空间名称",
100-round((nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/a.bytes_alloc)*100,2) "占用率(%)",
round(a.bytes_alloc/1024/1024,2) "容量(M)",
round(nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/1024/1024,2) "空闲(M)",
round((a.bytes_alloc-nvl(b.bytes_free,0))/1024/1024,2) "使用(M)",
Largest "最大扩展段(M)",
to_char(sysdate,''yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'') "采样时间" 
from  (select f.tablespace_name,
   sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc,
   sum(decode(f.autoextensible,''YES'',f.maxbytes,''NO'',f.bytes)) maxbytes 
from dba_data_files f 
group by tablespace_name) a,
(select  f.tablespace_name,
    sum(f.bytes) bytes_free 
from dba_free_space f 
group by tablespace_name) b,
(select round(max(ff.length)*16/1024,2) Largest,
   ts.name tablespace_name 
from sys.fet$ ff, sys.file$ tf,sys.ts$ ts 
where ts.ts#=ff.ts# and ff.file#=tf.relfile# and ts.ts#=tf.ts# 
group by ts.name, tf.blocks) c 
where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name and a.tablespace_name = c.tablespace_name
 
25. 查询表空间的碎片程度 
 select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name 
h***ing count(tablespace_name)>10; 
 
alter tablespace name coalesce; 
alter table name deallocate unused; 
 
create or replace view ts_blocks_v as 
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,''free space'' segment_name from dba_free_space 
union all 
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents; 
 
select * from ts_blocks_v; 
 
select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space 
group by tablespace_name;
 
26。查询有哪些数据库实例在运行
select inst_name from v$active_instances;
 ===========================================================
######### 创建数据库----look $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/buildall.sql ############# 
 
create database db01 
maxlogfiles 10 
maxdatafiles 1024 
maxinstances 2 
logfile 
GROUP 1 (''/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo'') SIZE 15M, 
GROUP 2 (''/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo'') SIZE 15M, 
GROUP 3 (''/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo'') SIZE 15M, 
datafile ''u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf'') SIZE 100M, 
undo tablespace UNDO 
datafile ''/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf'' SIZE 40M 
default temporary tablespace TEMP 
tempfile ''/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf'' SIZE 20M 
extent management local uniform size 128k 
character set AL32UTE8 
national character set AL16UTF16 
set time_zone=''America/New_York''; 
 
############### 数据字典 ########## 
 
set wrap off 
 
select * from v$dba_users; 
 
grant select on table_name to user/rule; 
 
select * from user_tables; 
 
select * from all_tables; 
 
select * from dba_tables; 
 
revoke dba from user_name; 
 
shutdown immediate 
 
startup nomount 
 
select * from v$instance; 
 
select * from v$sga; 
 
select * from v$tablespace; 
 
alter session set nls_language=american; 
 
alter database mount; 
 
select * from v$database; 
 
alter database open; 
 
desc dictionary 
 
select * from dict; 
 
desc v$fixed_table; 
 
select * from v$fixed_table; 
 
set oracle_sid=foxconn 
 
select * from dba_objects; 
 
set serveroutput on 
 
execute dbms_output.put_line(''sfasd''); 
 
############# 控制文件 ########### 
 
select * from v$database; 
 
select * from v$tablespace; 
 
select * from v$logfile; 
 
select * from v$log; 
 
select * from v$backup; 
 
/*备份用户表空间*/ 
alter tablespace users begin backup; 
 
select * from v$archived_log; 
 
select * from v$controlfile; 
 
alter system set control_files=''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl'', 
''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl'' scope=spfile; 
 
cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl 
 
startup pfile=''../initSID.ora'' 
 
select * from v$parameter where name like ''control%'' ; 
 
show parameter control; 
 
select * from v$controlfile_record_section; 
 
select * from v$tempfile; 
 
/*备份控制文件*/ 
alter database backup controlfile to ''../filepath/control.bak''; 
 
/*备份控制文件,并将二进制控制文件变为了asc 的文本文件*/ 
alter database backup controlfile to trace; 
 
############### redo log ############## 
 
archive log list; 
 
alter system archive log start;--启动自动存档 
 
alter system switch logfile;--强行进行一次日志switch 
 
alter system checkpoint;--强制进行一次checkpoint 
 
alter tablspace users begin backup; 
 
alter tablespace offline; 
 
/*checkpoint 同步频率参数FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET,同步频率越高,系统恢复所需时间越短*/ 
show parameter fast; 
 
show parameter log_checkpoint; 
 
/*加入一个日志组*/ 
alter database add logfile group 3 (''/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'' size 10M); 
 
/*加入日志组的一个成员*/ 
alter database add logfile member ''/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'' to group 3; 
 
/*删除日志组:当前日志组不能删;活动的日志组不能删;非归档的日志组不能删*/ 
alter database drop logfile group 3; 
 
/*删除日志组中的某个成员,但每个组的最后一个成员不能被删除*/ 
alter databse drop logfile member ''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo''; 
 
/*清除在线日志*/ 
alter database clear logfile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo''; 
 
alter database clear logfile group 3; 
 
/*清除非归档日志*/ 
alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3; 
 
/*重命名日志文件*/ 
alter database rename file ''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'' to ''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo''; 
 
show parameter db_create; 
 
alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1=''path_name''; 
 
select * from v$log; 
 
select * from v$logfile; 
 
/*数据库归档模式到非归档模式的互换,要启动到mount状态下才能改变;startup mount;然后再打开数据库.*/ 
alter database noarchivelog/archivelog; 
 
achive log start;---启动自动归档 
 
alter system archive all;--手工归档所有日志文件 
 
select * from v$archived_log; 
 
show parameter log_archive; 
 
###### 分析日志文件logmnr ############## 
 
1) 在init.ora中set utl_file_dir 参数 
2) 重新启动oracle 
3) create 目录文件 
desc dbms_logmnr_d; 
dbms_logmnr_d.build; 
4) 加入日志文件 add/remove log file 
dhms_logmnr.add_logfile 
dbms_logmnr.removefile 
5) start logmnr 
dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr 
6) 分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content --sqlredo/sqlundo 
 
实践: 
 
desc dbms_logmnr_d; 
 
/*对数据表做一些操作,为恢复操作做准备*/ 
update 表 set qty=10 where stor_id=6380; 
 
delete 表 where stor_id=7066; 
/***********************************/ 
utl_file_dir的路径 
execute dbms_logmnr_d.build(''foxdict.ora'',''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump''); 
 
execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile(''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log'',dbms_logmnr.newfile); 
 
execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>''$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.ora''); 
 
######### tablespace ############## 
 
select * form v$tablespace; 
 
select * from v$datafile; 
 
/*表空间和数据文件的对应关系*/ 
select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#; 
 
alter tablespace users add datafile ''path'' size 10M; 
 
select * from dba_rollback_segs; 
 
/*限制用户在某表空间的使用限额*/ 
alter user user_name quota 10m on tablespace_name; 
 
create tablespace xxx [datafile ''path_name/datafile_name''] [size xxx] [extent management local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)]; 
 
exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf'' size 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M; 
create tablespace userdata datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf'' size 100M extent management dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10) offline; 
/*9i以后,oracle建议使用local管理,而不使用dictionary管理,因为local采用bitmap管理表空间 ,不会产生系统表空间的自愿争用;*/ 
create tablespace userdata datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf'' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m; 
create tablespace userdata datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf'' size 100M extent management local autoallocate; 
/*在创建表空间时,设置表空间内的段空间管理模式,这里用的是自动管理*/ 
create tablespace userdata datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf'' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m segment space management auto; 
 
alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10; 
 
alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m next 1m pctincrease 20); 
 
/*undo tablespace(不能被用在字典管理模下) */ 
create undo tablespace undo1 datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf'' size 40M extent management local; 
 
show parameter undo; 
 
/*temporary tablespace*/ 
create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf'' size 10m extent management local; 
 
/*设置数据库缺省的临时表空间*/ 
alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
/*系统/临时/在线的undo表空间不能被offline*/ 
alter tablespace tablespace_name offline/online; 
 
alter tablespace tablespace_name read only; 
 
/*重命名用户表空间*/ 
alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf'' to ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf''; 
 
/*重命名系统表空间 ,但在重命名前必须将数据库shutdown,并重启到mount状态*/ 
alter database rename file ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf'' to ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf''; 
 
drop tablespace userdata including contents and datafiles;---drop tablespce 
 
/*resize tablespace,autoextend datafile space*/ 
alter database datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'' autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500M; 
 
/*resize datafile*/ 
alter database datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'' resize 50m; 
 
/*给表空间扩展空间*/ 
alter tablespace userdata add datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'' size 10m; 
 
/*将表空间设置成OMF状态*/ 
alter system set db_create_file_dest=''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata''; 
 
create tablespace userdata;---use OMF status to create tablespace; 
 
drop tablespace userdata;---user OMF status to drop tablespace; 
 
select * from dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files; 
 
/*将表的某分区移动到另一个表空间*/ 
alter table table_name move partition partition_name tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
###### ORACLE storage structure and relationships ######### 
 
/*手工分配表空间段的分区(extend)大小*/ 
alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf''); 
 
alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused; ---释放表中没有用到的分区 
 
show parameter db; 
 
alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m; ---配置8k块的内存空间块参数 
 
select * from dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace; 
 
select * from dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace; 
 
/*数据对象所占用的字节数*/ 
select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where onwer=''kong'' and segment_name =''table_name''; 
 
############ UNDO Data ################ 
 
show parameter undo; 
 
alter tablespace users offline normal; 
 
alter tablespace users offline immediate; 
 
recover datafile ''$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf''; 
 
alter tablespace users online ; 
 
select * from dba_rollback_segs; 
 
alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1; 
 
/*忽略回滚段的错误提示*/ 
alter system set undo_suppress_errors=true; 
 
/*在自动管理模式下,不会真正建立rbs1;在手工管理模式则可以建立,且是私有回滚段*/ 
create rollback segment rbs1 tablespace undotbs; 
 
desc dbms_flashback; 
 
/*在提交了修改的数据后,9i提供了旧数据的回闪操作,将修改前的数据只读给用户看,但这部分数据不会又恢复在表中,而是旧数据的一个映射*/ 
execute dbms_flashback.enable_at_time(''26-JAN-04:12:17:00 pm''); 
 
execute dbms_flashback.disable; 
 
/*回滚段的统计信息*/ 
select end_time,begin_time,undoblks from v$undostat; 
 
/*undo表空间的大小计算公式: UndoSpace=[UR * (UPS * DBS)] + (DBS * 24) 
UR :UNDO_RETENTION 保留的时间(秒) 
UPS :每秒的回滚数据块 
DBS:系统EXTENT和FILE SIZE(也就是db_block_size)*/ 
 
select * from dba_rollback_segs/v$rollname/v$rollstat/v$undostat/v$session/v$transaction; 
 
show parameter transactions; 
 
show parameter rollback; 
 
/*在手工管理模式下,建立公共的回滚段*/ 
create public rollback segment prbs1 tablespace undotbs; 
 
alter rollback segment rbs1 online;----在手工管理模式 
 
/*在手工管理模式中,initSID.ora中指定 undo_management=manual 、rollback_segment=(''rbs1'',''rbs2'',...)、 
transactions=100 、transactions_per_rollback_segment=10 
然后 shutdown immediate ,startup pfile=....\???.ora */ 
 
########## Managing Tables ########### 
 
/*char type maxlen=2000;varchar2 type maxlen=4000 bytes 
rowid 是18位的64进制字符串 (10个bytes 80 bits) 
rowid组成: object#(对象号)--32bits,6位 
rfile#(相对文件号)--10bits,3位 
block#(块号)--22bits,6位 
row#(行号)--16bits,3位 
64进制: A-Z,a-z,0-9,/,+ 共64个符号 
 
dbms_rowid 包中的函数可以提供对rowid的解释*/ 
 
select rowid,dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid),dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) from table_name; 
 
create table test2 

id int, 
lname varchar2(20) not null, 
fname varchar2(20) constraint ck_1 check(fname like ''k%''), 
empdate date default sysdate) 
) tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
 
create global temporary table test2 on commit delete/preserve rows as select * from kong.authors; 
 
create table user.table(...) tablespace tablespace_name storage(...) pctfree10 pctused 40; 
 
alter table user.tablename pctfree 20 pctused 50 storage(...);---changing table storage 
 
/*手工分配分区,分配的数据文件必须是表所在表空间内的数据文件*/ 
alter table user.table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile ''...''); 
 
/*释放表中没有用到的空间*/ 
alter table table_name deallocate unused; 
 
alter table table_name deallocate unused keep 8k; 
 
/*将非分区表的表空间搬到新的表空间,在移动表空间后,原表中的索引对象将会不可用,必须重建*/ 
alter table user.table_name move tablespace new_tablespace_name; 
 
create index index_name on user.table_name(column_name) tablespace users; 
 
alter index index_name rebuild; 
 
drop table table_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]; 
 
alter table user.table_name drop column col_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS CHECKPOINT 1000];---drop column 
 
/*给表中不用的列做标记*/ 
alter table user.table_name set unused column comments CASCADE CONSTRAINTS; 
 
/*drop表中不用的做了标记列*/ 
alter table user.table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; 
 
/*当在drop col是出现异常,使用CONTINUE,防止重删前面的column*/ 
ALTER TABLE USER.TABLE_NAME DROP COLUMNS CONTINUE CHECKPOINT 1000; 
 
select * from dba_tables/dba_objects; 
 
######## managing indexes ########## 
 
/*create index*/ 
example: 
/*创建一般索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*创建位图索引*/ 
create bitmap index index_name on table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*索引中不能用pctused*/ 
create [bitmap] index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) ; 
/*大数据量的索引最好不要做日志*/ 
create [bitmap] index index_name table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) nologging; 
/*创建反转索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(column_name) reverse; 
/*创建函数索引*/ 
create index index_name on table_name(function_name(column_name)) tablespace tablespace_name; 
/*建表时创建约束条件*/ 
create table user.table_name(column_name number(7) constraint constraint_name primary key deferrable using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace tablespace_name,column_name2 varchar2(25) constraint constraint_name not null,column_name3 number(7)) tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
/*给创建bitmap index分配的内存空间参数,以加速建索引*/ 
show parameter create_bit; 
 
/*改变索引的存储参数*/ 
alter index index_name pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k); 
 
/*给索引手工分配一个分区*/ 
alter index index_name allocate extent (size 200k datafile ''$ORACLE/oradata/..''); 
 
/*释放索引中没用的空间*/ 
alter index index_name deallocate unused; 
 
/*索引重建*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
/*普通索引和反转索引的互换*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name reverse; 
 
/*重建索引时,不锁表*/ 
alter index index_name rebuild online; 
 
/*给索引整理碎片*/ 
alter index index_name COALESCE; 
 
/*分析索引,事实上是更新统计的过程*/ 
analyze index index_name validate structure; 
 
desc index_state; 
 
drop index index_name; 
 
alter index index_name monitoring usage;-----监视索引是否被用到 
 
alter index index_name nomonitoring usage;----取消监视 
 
/*有关索引信息的视图*/ 
select * from dba_indexes/dba_ind_columns/dbs_ind_expressions/v$object_usage; 
 
########## 数据完整性的管理(Maintaining data integrity) ########## 
 
alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;----drop 约束 
 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name primary key(column_name1,column_name2);-----创建主键 
 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column_name1,column_name2);---创建唯一约束 
 
/*创建外键约束*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name foreign key(column_name1) references table_name(column_name1); 
 
/*不效验老数据,只约束新的数据[enable/disable:约束/不约束新数据;novalidate/validate:不对/对老数据进行验证]*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name like ''B%'') enable/disable novalidate/validate; 
 
/*修改约束条件,延时验证,commit时验证*/ 
alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially deferred; 
 
/*修改约束条件,立即验证*/ 
alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially immediate; 
 
alter session set constraints=deferred/immediate; 
 
/*drop一个有外键的主键表,带cascade constraints参数级联删除*/ 
drop table table_name cascade constraints; 
 
/*当truncate外键表时,先将外键设为无效,再truncate;*/ 
truncate table table_name; 
 
/*设约束条件无效*/ 
alter table table_name disable constraint constraint_name; 
 
alter table table_name enable novalidate constraint constraint_name; 
 
/*将无效约束的数据行放入exception的表中,此表记录了违反数据约束的行的行号;在此之前,要先建exceptions表*/ 
alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name >15) enable validate exceptions into exceptions; 
 
/*运行创建exceptions表的脚本*/ 
start $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlexcpt.sql; 
 
/*获取约束条件信息的表或视图*/ 
select * from user_constraints/dba_constraints/dba_cons_columns; 
 
################## managing password security and resources #################### 
 
alter user user_name account unlock/open;----锁定/打开用户; 
 
alter user user_name password expire;---设定口令到期 
 
/*建立口令配置文件,failed_login_attempts口令输多少次后锁,password_lock_times指多少天后口令被自动解锁*/ 
create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_times 1/1440; 
/*创建口令配置文件*/ 
create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function password_grace_time 5; 
/*建立资源配置文件*/ 
create profile prfile_name limit session_per_user 2 cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; 
 
alter user user_name profile profile_name; 
 
/*设置口令解锁时间*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_lock_time 1/24; 
 
/*password_life_time指口令文件多少时间到期,password_grace_time指在第一次成功登录后到口令到期有多少天时间可改变口令*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_lift_time 2 password_grace_time 3; 
 
/*password_reuse_time指口令在多少天内可被重用,password_reuse_max口令可被重用的最大次数*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit password_reuse_time 10[password_reuse_max 3]; 
 
alter user user_name identified by input_password;-----修改用户口令 
 
drop profile profile_name; 
 
/*建立了profile后,且指定给某个用户,则必须用CASCADE才能删除*/ 
drop profile profile_name CASCADE; 
 
alter system set resource_limit=true;---启用自愿限制,缺省是false 
 
/*配置资源参数*/ 
alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_session 10000 connect_time 60 idle_time 5; 
/*资源参数(session级) 
cpu_per_session 每个session占用cpu的时间 单位1/100秒 
sessions_per_user 允许每个用户的并行session数 
connect_time 允许连接的时间 单位分钟 
idle_time 连接被空闲多少时间后,被自动断开 单位分钟 
logical_reads_per_session 读块数 
***_sga 用户能够在SGA中使用的私有的空间数 单位bytes 
 
(call级) 
cpu_per_call 每次(1/100秒)调用cpu的时间 
logical_reads_per_call 每次调用能够读的块数 
*/ 
 
alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_call 1000 logical_reads_per_call 10; 
 
desc dbms_resouce_manager;---资源管理器包 
 
/*获取资源信息的表或视图*/ 
select * from dba_users/dba_profiles; 
 
###### Managing users ############ 
 
show parameter os; 
 
create user testuser1 identified by kxf_001; 
 
grant connect,createtable to testuser1; 
 
alter user testuser1 quota 10m on tablespace_name; 
 
/*创建用户*/ 
create user user_name identified by password default tablespace tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 
 
/*数据库级设定缺省临时表空间*/ 
alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
/*制定数据库级的缺省表空间*/ 
alter database default tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
/*创建os级审核的用户,需知道os_authent_prefix,表示oracle和os口令对应的前缀,''OPS$''为此参数的值,此值可以任意设置*/ 
create user user_name identified by externally default OPS$tablespace_name tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 
 
/*修改用户使用表空间的限额,回滚表空间和临时表空间不允许授予限额*/ 
alter user user_name quota 5m on tablespace_name; 
 
/*删除用户或删除级联用户(用户对象下有对象的要用CASCADE,将其下一些对象一起删除)*/ 
drop user user_name [CASCADE]; 
 
/*每个用户在哪些表空间下有些什么限额*/ 
desc dba_ts_quotas;select * from dba_ts_quotas where username=''...''; 
 
/*改变用户的缺省表空间*/ 
alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name; 
 
######### Managing Privileges ############# 
 
grant create table,create session to user_name; 
 
grant create any table to user_name; revoke create any table from user_name; 
 
/*授予权限语法,public 标识所有用户,with admin option允许能将权限授予第三者的权限*/ 
grant system_privs,[......] to [user/role/public],[....] [with admin option]; 
 
select * from v$pwfile_users; 
 
/*当 O7_dictionary_accessiblity参数为True时,标识select any table时,包括系统表也能select ,否则,不包含系统表;缺省为false*/ 
show parameter O7; 
 
/*由于 O7_dictionary_accessiblity为静态参数,不能动态改变,故加scope=spfile,下次启动时才生效*/ 
alter system set O7_dictionary_accessiblity=true scope=spfile; 
 
/*授予对象中的某些字段的权限,如select 某表中的某些字段的权限*/ 
grant [object_privs(column,....)],[...] on object_name to user/role/public,... with grant option; 
 
/*oracle不允许授予select某列的权限,但可以授insert ,update某列的权限*/ 
grant insert(column_name1,column_name2,...) on table_name to user_name with grant option; 
 
select * from dba_sys_privs/session_privs/dba_tab_privs/user_tab_privs/dba_col_privs/user_col_privs; 
 
/*db/os/none 审计被记录在 数据库/操作系统/不审计 缺省是none*/ 
show parameter audit_trail; 
 
/*启动对表的select动作*/ 
audit select on user.table_name by session; 
 
/*by session在每个session中发出command只记录一次,by access则每个command都记录*/ 
audit [create table][select/update/insert on object by session/access][whenever successful/not successful]; 
 
desc dbms_fga;---进一步设计,则可使用dbms_fgs包 
 
/*取消审计*/ 
noaudit select on user.table_name; 
 
/*查被审计信息*/ 
select * from all_def_audit_opts/dba_stmt_audit_opts/dba_priv_audit_opts/dba_obj_audit_opts; 
 
/*获取审计记录*/ 
select * from dba_audit_trail/dba_audit_exists/dba_audit_object/dba_audit_session/dba_audit_statement; 
 
########### Managing Role ################# 
 
create role role_name; grant select on table_name to role_name; grant role_name to user_name; set role role_name; 
 
create role role_name; 
create role role_name identified by password; 
create role role_name identified externally; 
 
set role role_name ; ----激活role 
set role role_name identified by password; 
 
alter role role_name not identified; 
alter role role_name identified by password; 
alter role role_name identified externally; 
 
grant priv_name to role_name [WITH ADMIN OPTION]; 
grant update(column_name1,col_name2,...) on table_name to role_name; 
grant role_name1 to role_name2; 
 
/*建立default role,用户登录时,缺省激活default role*/ 
alter user user_name default role role_name1,role_name2,...; 
alter user user_name default role all; 
alter user user_name default role all except role_name1,...; 
alter user user_name default role none; 
 
set role role1 [identified by password],role2,....; 
set role all; 
set role except role1,role2,...; 
set role none; 
 
revoke role_name from user_name; 
revoke role_name from public; 
 
drop role role_name; 
 
select * from dba_roles/dba_role_privs/role_role_privs/dba_sys_privs/role_sys_privs/role_tab_privs/session_roles; 
 
########### Basic SQL SELECT ################ 
 
select col_name as col_alias from table_name ; 
 
select col_name from table_name where col1 like ''_o%''; ----''_''匹配单个字符 
 
/*使用字符函数(右边截取,字段中包含某个字符,左边填充某字符到固定位数,右边填充某字符到固定位数)*/ 
select substr(col1,-3,5),instr(col2,''g''),LPAD(col3,10,''$''),RPAD(col4,10,''%'') from table_name; 
 
/*使用数字函数(往右/左几位四舍五入,取整,取余)*/ 
select round(col1,-2),trunc(col2),mod(col3) from table_name ; 
 
/*使用日期函数(计算两个日期间相差几个星期,两个日期间相隔几个月,在某个月份上加几个月,某个日期的下一个日期, 
某日期所在月的最后的日期,对某个日期的月分四舍五入,对某个日期的月份进行取整)*/ 
select (sysdate-col1)/7 week,months_between(sysdate,col1),add_months(col1,2),next_day(sysdate,''FRIDAY''),last_day(sysdate), 
round(sysdate,''MONTH''),trunc(sysdate,''MONTH'') from table_name; 
 
/*使用NULL函数(当expr1为空取expr2/当expr1为空取expr2,否则取expr3/当expr1=expr2返回空)*/ 
select nvl(expr1,expr2),nvl2(expr1,expr2,expr3),nullif(expr1,expr2) from table_name; 
 
select column1,column2,column3, case column2 when ''50'' then column2*1.1 
when ''30'' then column2*2.1 
when ''10'' then column3/20 
else column3 
end as ttt 
from table_name ; ------使用case函数 
 
select table1.col1,table2.col2 from table1 
[CROSS JOIN table2] | -----笛卡儿连接 
[NATURAL JOIN table2] | -----用两个表中的同名列连接 
[JOIN table2 USING (column_name)] | -----用两个表中的同名列中的某一列或几列连接 
[JOIN table2 
ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)] | 
[LEFT|RIGHT|FULL OUTER JOIN table2 ------相当于(+)=,=(+)连接,全外连接 
ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)]; ------SQL 1999中的JOIN语法; 
 
example: 
select col1,col2 from table1 t1 
join table2 t2 
on t1.col1=t2.col2 and t1.col3=t2.col1 
join table3 t3 
on t2.col1=t3.col3; 
 
select * from table_name where col1 < any (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); 
 
select * from table_name where col1 < all (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); 
 
insert into (select col1,col2,col3 form table_name where col1> 50 with check option) values (value1,value2,value3); 
 
MERGE INTO table_name table1 
USING table_name2 table2 
ON (table1.col1=table2.col2) 
WHEN MATCHED THEN 
UPDATE SET 
table1.col1=table2.col2, 
table1.col2=table2.col3, 
... 
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN 
INSERT VALUES(table2.col1,table2.col2,table2.col3,...); -----合并语句 
 
##################### CREATE/ALTER TABLE ####################### 
 
alter table table_name drop column column_name ;---drop column 
 
alter table table_name set unused (col1,col2,...);----设置列无效,这个比较快。 
alter table table_name drop unused columns;---删除被设为无效的列 
 
rename table_name1 to table_name2; ---重命名表 
 
comment on table table_name is ''comment message'';----给表放入注释信息 
 
create table table_name 
(col1 int not null,col2 varchar2(20),col3 varchar2(20), 
constraint uk_test2_1 unique(col2,col3))); -----定义表中的约束条件 
 
alter table table_name add constraint pk_test2 primary key(col1,col2,...); ----创建主键 
 
/*建立外键*/ 
create table table_name (rid int,name varchar2(20),constraint fk_test3 foreign key(rid) references other_table_name(id)); 
 
alter table table_name add constraint ck_test3 check(name like ''K%''); 
 
alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name; 
 
alter table table_name drop primary key cascade;----级联删除主键 
 
alter table table_name disable/enable constraint constraint_name;----使约束暂时无效 
 
/*删除列,并级联删除此列下的约束条件*/ 
alter table table_name drop column column_name cascade constraint; 
 
select * from user_constraints/user_cons_columns;---约束条件相关视图 
 
############## Create Views ##################### 
 
CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view_name [(alias[,alias]...)] 
AS subquery 
[WITH CHECK OPTION [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]] 
[WITH READ ONLY [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]]; ------创建视图的语法 
 
example: Create or replace view testview as select col1,col2,col3 from table_name; ------创建视图 
/*使用别名*/ 
Create or replace view testview as select col1,sum(col2) col2_alias from table_name; 
/*创建复杂视图*/ 
Create view view_name (alias1,alias2,alias3,alias4) as select d.col1,min(e.col1),max(e.col1),***g(e.col1) from table_name1 e,table_name2 d where e.col2=d.col2 group by d.col1; 
/*当用update修改数据时,必须满足视图的col1>10的条件,不满足则不能被改变.*/ 
Create or replace view view_name as select * from table_name where col1>10 with check option; 
 
/*改变视图的值.对于简单视图可以用update语法修改表数据,但复杂视图则不一定能改。如使用了函数,group by ,distinct等的列*/ 
update view_name set col1=value1; 
 
/*TOP-N分析*/ 
select [column_list],rownum from (select [column_list] from table_name order by Top-N_column) where rownum<=N; 
 
/*找出某列三条最大值的记录*/ 
example: select rownum as rank ,col1 ,col2 from (select col1 ,col2 from table_name order by col2 desc) where rownum<=3; 
 
############# Other database Object ############### 
 
CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name [INCREMENT BY n] 
[START WITH n] 
[{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] 
[{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] 
[{CYCEL | NOCYCLE}] 
[{CACHE n | NOCACHE}]; -----创建SEQUENCE 
 
example: 
CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name INCREMENT BY 10 
START WITH 120 
MAXVALUE 9999 
NOCACHE 
NOCYCLE; 
 
select * from user_sequences ;---当前用户下记录sequence的视图 
 
select sequence_name.nextval,sequence_name.currval from dual;-----sequence的引用 
 
alter sequence sequence_name INCREMENT BY 20 
MAXVALUE 999999 
NOCACHE 
NOCYCLE; -----修改sequence,不能改变起始序号 
 
drop sequence sequence_name; ----删除sequence 
 
CREATE [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name FOR object; ------创建同义词 
 
DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name;----删除同义词 
 
CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK link_name USEING OBJECT;----创建DBLINK 
 
select * from object_name@link_name; ----访问远程数据库中的对象 
 
/*union 操作,它将两个集合的交集部分压缩,并对数据排序*/ 
select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 
 
/*union all 操作,两个集合的交集部分不压缩,且不对数据排序*/ 
select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union all select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 
 
/*intersect 操作,求两个集合的交集,它将对重复数据进行压缩,且排序*/ 
select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name intersect select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 
 
/*minus 操作,集合减,它将压缩两个集合减后的重复记录, 且对数据排序*/ 
select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name minus select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 
 
/*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数. 此例是抽取当前日期中的年*/ 
select EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) from dual; 
/*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数. 此例是抽取当前日期中的月*/ 
select EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) from dual; 
 
########################## 增强的 group by 子句 ######################### 
 
select [column,] group_function(column)... 
from table 
[WHERE condition] 
[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression] 
[H***ING h***ing_expression]; 
[ORDER BY column]; -------ROLLUP操作字,对group by子句的各字段从右到左进行再聚合 
 
example: 
/*其结果看起来象对col1做小计*/ 
select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup(col1,col2); 
/*复合rollup表达式*/ 
select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup((col1,col2)); 
 
select [column,] group_function(column)... 
from table 
[WHERE condition] 
[GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression] 
[H***ING h***ing_expression]; 
[ORDER BY column]; -------CUBE操作字,除完成ROLLUP的功能外,再对ROLLUP后的结果集从右到左再聚合 
 
example: 
/*其结果看起来象对col1做小计后,再对col2做小计,最后算总计*/ 
select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube(col1,col2); 
/*复合rollup表达式*/ 
select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube((col1,col2)); 
/*混合rollup,cube表达式*/ 
select col1,col2,col3,sum(col4) from table group by col1,rollup(col2),cube(col3); 
 
/*GROUPING(expr)函数,查看select语句种以何字段聚合,其取值为0或1*/ 
select [column,] group_function(column)...,GROUPING(expr) 
from table 
[WHERE condition] 
[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression] 
[H***ING h***ing_expression]; 
[ORDER BY column]; 
 
example: 
select col1,col2,sum(col3),grouping(col1),grouping(col2) from table group by cube(col1,col2); 
 
/*grouping sets操作,对group by结果集先对col1求和,再对col2求和,最后将其结果集并在一起*/ 
select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by grouping sets((col1),(col2));

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