发布日期:2015-10-21 11:25 来源: 标签: MySQL数据库 MySQL教程 优化MySQL查询 优化MySQL子查询
本章节我们将学习如何解决MySQL子查询效率慢的问题,下面我们就对MySQL的优化方法做一下具体讲解,希望大家多多支持中国站长网络学院。
文章表article(id,title,content)
标签表tag(tid,tag_name)
标签文章中间表article_tag(id,tag_id,article_id)
其中有个标签的tid是135,查询标签tid是135的文章列表
用以下语句时发现速度好慢,才690篇文章
select id,title from article where id in(
select article_id from article_tag where tag_id=135)
其中这条速度很快:select article_id from article_tag where tag_id=135
查询结果是五篇文章,id为428,429,430,431,432
用写死的方式用下面sql来查文章也很快
select id,title from article where id in(
428,429,430,431,432)
在SqlServer中好不会这样慢,但是在MySQL里效率却比较差

解决方法:
select id,title from article where id in(
select article_id from (select article_id from article_tag where tag_id=135) as tbt)

其它解决方法:(举例)
mysql> select * from abc_number_prop where number_id in (select number_id from abc_number_phone where phone = '82306839');
为了节省篇幅,省略了输出内容,下同。
67 rows in set (12.00 sec)
只有67行数据返回,却花了12秒,而系统中可能同时会有很多这样的查询,系统肯定扛不住。用desc看一下(注:explain也可)
mysql> desc select * from abc_number_prop where number_id in (select number_id from abc_number_phone where phone = '82306839');
+----+--------------------+------------------+--------+-----------------+-------+---------+------------+---------+--------------------------+
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |
+----+--------------------+------------------+--------+-----------------+-------+---------+------------+---------+--------------------------+
| 1 | PRIMARY | abc_number_prop | ALL | NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL | 2679838 | Using where |
| 2 | DEPENDENT SUBQUERY | abc_number_phone | eq_ref | phone,number_id | phone | 70 | const,func | 1 | Using where; Using index |
+----+--------------------+------------------+--------+-----------------+-------+---------+------------+---------+--------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
从上面的信息可以看出,在执行此查询时会扫描两百多万行,难道是没有创建索引吗,看一下
mysql>show index from abc_number_phone;
+------------------+------------+-------------+--------------+-----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| Table | Non_unique | Key_name | Seq_in_index | Column_name | Collation | Cardinality | Sub_part | Packed | Null | Index_type | Comment | Index_comment |
+------------------+------------+-------------+--------------+-----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| abc_number_phone | 0 | PRIMARY | 1 | number_phone_id | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_phone | 0 | phone | 1 | phone | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_phone | 0 | phone | 2 | number_id | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_phone | 1 | number_id | 1 | number_id | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_phone | 1 | created_by | 1 | created_by | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_phone | 1 | modified_by | 1 | modified_by | A | 36879 | NULL | NULL | YES | BTREE | | |
+------------------+------------+-------------+--------------+-----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
6 rows in set (0.06 sec)

mysql>show index from abc_number_prop;
+-----------------+------------+-------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| Table | Non_unique | Key_name | Seq_in_index | Column_name | Collation | Cardinality | Sub_part | Packed | Null | Index_type | Comment | Index_comment |
+-----------------+------------+-------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| abc_number_prop | 0 | PRIMARY | 1 | number_prop_id | A | 311268 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_prop | 1 | number_id | 1 | number_id | A | 311268 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_prop | 1 | created_by | 1 | created_by | A | 311268 | NULL | NULL | | BTREE | | |
| abc_number_prop | 1 | modified_by | 1 | modified_by | A | 311268 | NULL | NULL | YES | BTREE | | |
+-----------------+------------+-------------+--------------+----------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
4 rows in set (0.15 sec)
从上面的输出可以看出,这两张表在number_id字段上创建了索引的。

看看子查询本身有没有问题。
mysql> desc select number_id from abc_number_phone where phone = '82306839';
+----+-------------+------------------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------------+
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |
+----+-------------+------------------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------------+
| 1 | SIMPLE | abc_number_phone | ref | phone | phone | 66 | const | 6 | Using where; Using index |
+----+-------------+------------------+------+---------------+-------+---------+-------+------+--------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
没有问题,只需要扫描几行数据,索引起作用了。查询出来看看
mysql> select number_id from abc_number_phone where phone = '82306839';
+-----------+
| number_id |
+-----------+
| 8585 |
| 10720 |
| 148644 |
| 151307 |
| 170691 |
| 221897 |
+-----------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)
直接把子查询得到的数据放到上面的查询中
mysql> select * from abc_number_prop where number_id in (8585, 10720, 148644, 151307, 170691, 221897);
67 rows in set (0.03 sec)
速度也快,看来MySQL在处理子查询的时候是不够好。我在MySQL 5.1.42 和 MySQL 5.5.19 都进行了尝试,都有这个问题。
搜索了一下网络,发现很多人都遇到过这个问题:
根据网上这些资料的建议,改用join来试试。
修改前:select * from abc_number_prop where number_id in (select number_id from abc_number_phone where phone = '82306839');
修改后:select a.* from abc_number_prop a inner join abc_number_phone b on a.number_id = b.number_id where phone = '82306839';
mysql> select a.* from abc_number_prop a inner join abc_number_phone b on a.number_id = b.number_id where phone = '82306839';
67 rows in set (0.00 sec)
效果不错,查询所用时间几乎为0。看一下MySQL是怎么执行这个查询的
mysql>desc select a.* from abc_number_prop a inner join abc_number_phone b on a.number_id = b.number_id where phone = '82306839';
+----+-------------+-------+------+-----------------+-----------+---------+-----------------+------+--------------------------+
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra |
+----+-------------+-------+------+-----------------+-----------+---------+-----------------+------+--------------------------+
| 1 | SIMPLE | b | ref | phone,number_id | phone | 66 | const | 6 | Using where; Using index |
| 1 | SIMPLE | a | ref | number_id | number_id | 4 | eap.b.number_id | 3 | |
+----+-------------+-------+------+-----------------+-----------+---------+-----------------+------+--------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
说明:当子查询速度慢时,可用JOIN来改写一下该查询来进行优化。

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专题信息
    MySQL 是一种关联数据库管理系统,MySQL 所使用的 SQL 语言是用于访问数据库的最常用标准化语言。MySQL 软件分为社区版和商业版,由于其体积小、速度快、总体拥有成本低,尤其是开放源码这一特点,一般中小型网站的开发都选择 MySQL 作为网站数据库。本教程主要讲解了MySQL查询语句、MySQL查询方法、MySQL查询命令等,希望对大家有所帮助。